A computer network or data network is a digital telecommunications network that allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computer devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes. These data links are established through cable means such as cables or optical cables or wireless means such as WiFi.
The computer network devices that originate, route, and terminate the data are called network nodes. The nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, telephones, servers and network hardware. It can be said that two devices of this type are networked when a device can exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have direct connection between them.
In most cases, application-specific communication protocols are layered over other more general communication protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires specialized network management to make everything work reliably.
Computer networks support an enormous amount of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, sharing of application servers and storage, printers and fax machines, and use of electronic mail and instant messaging applications. , as well as many others.
Computer networks differ in the means of transmission used to transmit their signals, communication protocols to organize network traffic, network size, topology, the traffic control mechanism and the intention of the organization. The most known computer network is the Internet.
Computer networks can be considered a branch of electrical engineering, electronic engineering, telecommunications, information technology, information technology or computer engineering, since it is based on the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.
A computer network facilitates interpersonal communications, which allows users to communicate efficiently and easily through various means: email, instant messaging, online chat, telephone, video calls and video conferencing. A network allows sharing the network and computing resources. Users can access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or using a shared storage device.
A network allows the sharing of files, data and other types of information that gives authorized users the ability to access information stored on other computers in the network. Distributed computing uses computer resources in a network to perform tasks.
Computer communication links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunication links, simply transmit data as a bit stream. However, most information on computer networks is carried in packages. A network packet is a formatted data unit carried by a packet switching network. Packages are sent through the network to their destination. Once the packages arrive, they are reassembled in their original message.